Syndrome prémenstruel et humeur

Le syndrome prémenstruel (SPM) est un ensemble de symptômes survenant les jours précédant les menstruations ou règles. Les manifestations du SPM sont nombreuses : douleurs physiques, apparition de boutons, modification de l’appétit et bien sûr, modification de l’humeur. C’est ce point sur lequel nous allons nous attarder plus particulièrement. La prévalence (le nombre de cas dans la population) reste méconnu. On estime qu’environ 80% des personnes menstruées sont touchées par le SPM. Chez un quart d’entre elles, ces symptômes pesent sur leur vie. Pour certaines, ils deviennent un véritable trouble.

Comprendre le SPM

Si l’origine du SPM reste inconnue, il est sans doute lié aux taux d’hormones sexuelles et à leurs interactions. Il est en lien avec le cycle menstruel, qui, lui, est régulé par les hormones telles que les oestrogènes et la progestérone. Les symptômes liés au syndrome prémenstruel peuvent être somatiques, affectifs, cognitifs et comportementaux. Ils sont extrêmement divers et nombreux.

On parle d’une plus importante instabilité de l’humeur chez les personnes atteintes de SPM. Celle-ci concerne davantage la période concernée par celui-ci. Toutefois, on retrouve cette forme d’instabilité à d’autres moments du cycle. On retrouve chez ces personnes davantage d’humeurs dépressives et irritables. Il semblerait également que l’on puisse trouver davantage de sautes d’humeur. C’est le passage d’un état émotionnel à un autre de manière rapide voire soudaine.

Le trouble dysphorique prémenstruel

Le trouble dysphorique prémenstruel est une forme plus sévère du SPM. C’est un véritable trouble. Il est donc identifié comme une forme de maladie psychiatrique. Ses caractéristiques sont l’humeur dépressive, l’anxiété et une labilité émotionnelle (sautes d’humeur importantes). On retrouve également une diminution de l’intérêt pour les activités de la vie quotidienne. La prise en charge est complexe, mais il existe des possibilités de traitement.

Comprendre le fonctionnement de notre corps peut nous permettre de mieux comprendre le fonctionnement de notre esprit également. Connaître son cycle peut permettre aux personnes menstruées de mieux appréhender leurs éventuels changements d’humeur et leur vécu de certaines situations. Ainsi, votre santé hormonale peut impacter votre état psychologique.

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〇Consultez l’article scientifique sur L’instabilité émotionnelle et le SPM

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