Multiculturalité ou Interculturalité ?

On entend très souvent ces deux termes pour désigner la présence de cultures différentes dans un même espace mais lequel devons-nous utiliser ? Est-ce qu’ils veulent dire la même chose ? Voyons ensemble.

La multiculturalité concerne la présence de plusieurs cultures sur un territoire réel ou virtuel. C’est une expression qui relève d’une observation, d’un fait « extérieur ». Les Etats-Unis d’Amérique sont un territoire représentatif de la multiculturalité. A New York par exemple, il existe de très nombreux quartiers « ethniques » dont le plus connu est Chinatown. La ville s’est organisée en fonction des appartenances culturelles d’origine de ses habitants qui s’organisent en communautés.

L’interculturalité concerne un processus, une relation dynamique entre des individus culturellement différents. Si elle peut bien sûr s’observer, elle relève davantage d’un fonctionnement que d’un simple fait. L’île de La Réunion est un exemple de société interculturelle. En effet, ses habitants ont su composer avec les différentes identités culturelles présentes et établir une forme d’échange entre elles. Par exemple, les rapports entre les différentes religions sont tolérants et basés sur le dialogue et l’échange.

La multiculturalité est un état de fait d’où l’interculturalité pourra naître ou non. Certaines cultures ont plus d’affinités avec une idéologie multiculturelle ou interculturelle. A votre avis, qu’en est-il de la culture française ?

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