La psychologie interculturelle, qu’est-ce que c’est ?

Histoire

La psychologie interculturelle émerge dans les années 1970, bien que les psychologues s’intéressent depuis longtemps aux questions culturelles. Elle s’inscrit dans le champ des psychologies culturelles au même titre que la psychologie culturelle comparative, la psychologie indigène et la psychologie transculturelle. Leur objet est l’articulation entre le psychisme et la culture. La culture est une notion complexe, étudiée par de nombreuses disciplines et qui donc a de très nombreuses définitions. Nous retiendrons que la culture est un ensemble de valeurs, comportements, croyances, standards comportementaux et normes partagés par plusieurs personnes. La psychologie interculturelle a de spécifique qu’elle étudie les effets psychologiques du contact culturel, elle tente donc de comprendre ce qui se produit dans le psychisme humain lors d’une rencontre entre personnes porteuses de cultures différentes.

Idées générales

La psychologie interculturelle est subjectiviste, c’est-à-dire qu’elle focalise son étude de l’être humain sur la part subjective de sa relation au monde. Elle considère les personnes dans leur caractère unique et s’intéresse donc à chaque individu dans ses particularités. Pour autant, elle n’envisage pas l’être humain seul, elle le replace toujours dans son contexte environnemental donc social, historique et culturel. C’est aussi une psychologie qui s’intéresse à l’esprit humain en tant que dynamique et processuel. Autrement dit, elle considère que le psychisme n’est jamais figé et que ses mécanismes s’élaborent en tant que processus. Elle repose donc sur une éthique de la complexité du sujet humain et du respect de sa subjectivité. Le concept phare de la psychologie interculturelle est l’interculturation.

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