Choc culturel

Le choc culturel est une expérience, souvent “douloureuse et conflictuelle”, faite par une personne qui doit gérer des interactions sociales lorsqu’elle est plongée dans un milieu social inconnu. Dans cette situation, cette personne ne dispose pas des codes nécessaire pour pouvoir s’adapter à ces nouvelles interactions. Elle se sent alors très souvent désorientée, stressée voire en état de choc. Cette expérience difficile peut avoir un impact plus ou moins fort sur son fonctionnement psychique et social et peut même, dans certains cas, se répercuter sur son bien-être physique.

Les symptômes sont nombreux : ennui, isolement, perturbations du sommeil, consommations addictives, humeur irritable ou colérique, tensions et conflits dans les relations, adoption de stéréotypes culturels ou fierté exagérée pour la culture d’origine, hostilité envers le pays d’accueil… la liste est longue. 

Le choc culturel n’est pas forcément immédiat et ce n’est pas non plus un phénomène linéaire. On le compare souvent à une courbe en U. En effet, les premiers contacts avec la culture étrangère sont souvent idylliques du fait de la très forte stimulation qu’ils provoquent et de l’effet de nouveauté. On peut ensuite voir un temps de crise apparaître où la personne se rend compte de l’importance des différences culturelles. L’adaptation se fait ensuite par intégration progressive des codes culturels par un apprentissage plus ou moins conscient.

Sources :

https://www.cairn.info/mondialisation-et-identite-culturelle–9782804162603.htm

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