Enculturation

L’enculturation est un concept développé par Margaret Mead, une anthropologue américaine ayant étudié les rapports humains dans les sociétés décrites comme “primitives”. Sa contribution à la psychologie interculturelle est indéniable puisqu’elle a beaucoup travaillé sur l’interaction entre culture, éducation, psychologie et société.

L’enculturation désigne à la fois :
– la transmission de la culture à l’enfant par son groupe d’appartenance (parents puis autres acteurs sociaux)
– le processus d’apprentissage chez l’enfant des différents codes culturels.
Cette enculturation ne se limite toutefois pas au jeune âge, elle se poursuit tout au long de la vie de l’individu. Cette transmission se fait de manière directe et explicite (par exemple à travers les récits) mais également de manière implicite (via, par exemple, l’imitation des comportements). 

L’enculturation permet donc à chacun.e d’être intégré.e au groupe culturel d’appartenance et de s’y reconnaître. Elle offre au sujet, en quelque sorte, les outils culturels nécessaire pour élaborer sa personnalité et sa subjectivité en lien avec un contexte culturel, historique et social.

Cette notion se rapproche de celle de socialisation puisqu’elles concernent toutes deux des processus d’appropriation de l’environnement social et/ou culturel par le sujet. Celui-ci pourra ainsi s’insérer au sein d’une société et construire son identité. Elle se démarque de l’acculturation, concept dont nous traiterons dans un prochain article.

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