Syndrome du voyageur

Le syndrome du voyageur ou syndrome indien a été rapporté par le psychiatre Régis Airault dans les années 1985-86 lors de son expérience en Inde en tant que médecin. Il a observé que de nombreux occidentaux développaient, au contact de la culture indienne, des sentiments étranges et une perte de contact avec la réalité. Ces manifestations s’apparentaient parfois à un véritable trouble psychiatrique grave (que l’on nomme psychose) avec des délires ou des hallucinations.

Ce qui est particulièrement intéressant est que la plupart des occidentaux touchés par ce syndrome n’avaient aucun antécédent psychiatrique et retrouvaient une vie complètement normale dès qu’ils quittaient l’Inde. Cela remet en cause notre conception de la psychose puisque l’entrée dans une psychose est « normalement » définitive. Aussi, cela accentue l’importance du contact culturel dans ses interactions avec le psychisme humain.

Le choc culturel pourrait provoquer des désorganisations psychiques telles qu’elles plongent les individus dans des états de confusion extrême et de perte de repères avec la réalité. Cette entrée dans la psychose est ce qu’on appelle la décompensation. L’Inde est un pays dont les cultures sont très différentes des cultures occidentales, ce qui peut provoquer un très fort choc culturel à l’arrivée dans le pays. L’identité de la personne serait tellement ébranlée par ce choc culturel puissant que les processus d’adaptation s’en trouveraient dépassés provoquant la décompensation.

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